Default applications

出自 Arch Linux 中文维基


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Programs sometimes need to open a file or a URI in the user's preferred application. To open a file in the user's preferred application the filetype needs to be detected (usually using filename extensions or magic numbers mapped to MIME types) and there needs to be an application associated with the filetype. has standardized filetype detection with the Shared MIME database specification and application association with the XDG MIME Applications specification.

Some desktop environments also provide a GUI or a file-manager which can interactively configure default applications. If you do not use a desktop environment, you may need to install additional software in order to conveniently manage default applications.

Resource openers[編輯 | 編輯原始碼]

  • XDG MIME Apps: implements the XDG MIME Applications specification
  • RegEx rules: allows MIME types to be associated with applications using regular expressions
  • URI support: allows arbitrary URI schemes to be associated with applications
Name Package XDG MIME Apps RegEx rules URI support
xdg-open xdg-utils
mimeopen(1p) perl-file-mimeinfo
mimeo mimeoAUR
whippet whippetAUR[損壞的連結:package not found]
linopen linopenAUR
mimi mimi-gitAUR partly
busking busking-gitAUR
sx-open sx-openAUR[損壞的連結:package not found]
rifle(1) ranger

xdg-open[編輯 | 編輯原始碼]

xdg-open (part of xdg-utils) implements XDG MIME Applications and is used by many programs.

Because of the complexity of the xdg-utils version of xdg-open, it can be difficult to debug when the wrong default application is being opened. Because of this, there are many alternatives that attempt to improve upon it. Several of these alternatives replace the /usr/bin/xdg-open executable, thus changing the default application behavior of most applications. Others simply provide an alternative method of choosing default applications.

perl-file-mimeinfo[編輯 | 編輯原始碼]

perl-file-mimeinfo provides the tools mimeopen(1p) and mimetype(1p). These have a slightly nicer interface than their xdg-utils equivalents:

# determine a file's MIME type
$ mimetype photo.jpeg
photo.jpeg: image/jpeg

# choose the default application for this file
$ mimeopen -d photo.jpeg
Please choose an application

    1) Feh (feh)
    2) GNU Image Manipulation Program (gimp)
    3) Pinta (pinta)

use application #

# open a file with its default application
$ mimeopen -n photo.jpeg

Most importantly, xdg-utils programs will actually call mimetype instead of file for MIME type detection, if it does not detect your desktop environment. This is important because file does not follow the XDG standard.

注意: perl-file-mimeinfo before 0.28-1 does not entirely follow the XDG standard. For example it does not read distribution-wide defaults and it saves its config in deprecated locations.

mimeo[編輯 | 編輯原始碼]

mimeoAUR provides the tool mimeo, which unifies the functionality of xdg-open and xdg-mime.

# determine a file's MIME type
$ mimeo -m photo.jpeg

# choose the default application for this MIME type
$ mimeo --add image/jpeg feh.desktop

# open a file with its default application
$ mimeo photo.jpeg

However a big difference with xdg-utils is that mimeo also supports custom "association files" that allow for more complex associations. For example, passing specific command line arguments based on a regular expression match:

# open youtube links in VLC without opening a new instance
vlc --one-instance --playlist-enqueue %U

xdg-utils-mimeoAUR patches xdg-utils so that xdg-open falls back to mimeo if no desktop environment is detected.

whippet[編輯 | 編輯原始碼]

whippetAUR[損壞的連結:package not found] provides the tool whippet, which is similar to xdg-open. It has X11 integration by using libnotify to display errors and dmenu to display choices between applications to open.

# open a file with its default application
$ whippet -M photo.jpeg

# choose from all possible applications for opening a file (without setting a default)
$ whippet -m photo.jpeg

In addition to implementing XDG MIME Applications, whippet can also use a SQlite database of weighted application/MIME type/regex associations to determine which app to use.

Minimalist replacements[編輯 | 編輯原始碼]

The following packages conflict with and provide xdg-utils because they provide their own /usr/bin/xdg-open script.

If you want to use one of these resource openers while still being able to use xdg-utils, install them manually in a PATH directory before /usr/bin.

  • linopenAUR - 170-line Bash script, supports regex rules
  • mimi-gitAUR - 130-line Bash script, can change command arguments for each MIME type
  • busking-gitAUR - 80-line Perl script similar to mimi but also supports regex rules
  • sx-openAUR[損壞的連結:package not found] - 60-line Bash script, uses a simple shell-based config file

run-mailcap[編輯 | 編輯原始碼]

警告: If you use run-mailcapAUR, it is possible for xdg-open to delegate to it. This will cause an infinite loop if you are using the /etc/mailcap from mailcap, because it also delegates to xdg-open.