Programs sometimes need to open a file or a URI in the user's preferred application. To open a file in the user's preferred application the filetype needs to be detected (usually using filename extensions or magic numbers mapped to MIME types) and there needs to be an application associated with the filetype.
- Some programs (particularly command-line programs) detect default programs using environment variables, see Environment variables#Default programs.
- Some programs (particularly heirloom UNIX programs) use mime.types for MIME type detection and mailcap for application association.
- Many programs outsource the task completely to a #Resource opener.
Freedesktop.org has standardized filetype detection with the Shared MIME database specification and application association with the XDG MIME Applications specification.
Some desktop environments also provide a GUI or a file-manager which can interactively configure default applications. If you do not use a desktop environment, you may need to install additional software in order to conveniently manage default applications.
Resource openers[编辑 | 编辑源代码]
- XDG MIME Apps: implements the XDG MIME Applications specification
- RegEx rules: allows MIME types to be associated with applications using regular expressions
- URI support: allows arbitrary URI schemes to be associated with applications
|Name||Package||XDG MIME Apps||RegEx rules||URI support|
|whippet||whippetAUR[损坏的链接：package not found]||是||否||是|
|sx-open||sx-openAUR[损坏的链接：package not found]||否||是||是|
xdg-open[编辑 | 编辑源代码]
xdg-open (part of xdg-utils) implements XDG MIME Applications and is used by many programs.
Because of the complexity of the xdg-utils version of xdg-open, it can be difficult to debug when the wrong default application is being opened. Because of this, there are many alternatives that attempt to improve upon it. Several of these alternatives replace the
/usr/bin/xdg-open executable, thus changing the default application behavior of most applications. Others simply provide an alternative method of choosing default applications.
perl-file-mimeinfo[编辑 | 编辑源代码]
perl-file-mimeinfo包 provides the tools mimeopen(1p) and mimetype(1p). These have a slightly nicer interface than their xdg-utils包 equivalents:
# determine a file's MIME type $ mimetype photo.jpeg photo.jpeg: image/jpeg # choose the default application for this file $ mimeopen -d photo.jpeg Please choose an application 1) Feh (feh) 2) GNU Image Manipulation Program (gimp) 3) Pinta (pinta) use application # # open a file with its default application $ mimeopen -n photo.jpeg
Most importantly, xdg-utils programs will actually call
mimetype instead of
file for MIME type detection, if it does not detect your desktop environment. This is important because
file does not follow the XDG standard.
mimeo[编辑 | 编辑源代码]
mimeoAUR provides the tool
mimeo, which unifies the functionality of
# determine a file's MIME type $ mimeo -m photo.jpeg photo.jpeg image/jpeg # choose the default application for this MIME type $ mimeo --add image/jpeg feh.desktop # open a file with its default application $ mimeo photo.jpeg
However a big difference with xdg-utils is that mimeo also supports custom "association files" that allow for more complex associations. For example, passing specific command line arguments based on a regular expression match:
# open youtube links in VLC without opening a new instance vlc --one-instance --playlist-enqueue %U ^https?://(www.)?youtube.com/watch\?.*v=
xdg-utils-mimeoAUR patches xdg-utils so that
xdg-open falls back to mimeo if no desktop environment is detected.
whippet[编辑 | 编辑源代码]
whippetAUR[损坏的链接：package not found] provides the tool
whippet, which is similar to
xdg-open. It has X11 integration by using libnotify包 to display errors and dmenu包 to display choices between applications to open.
# open a file with its default application $ whippet -M photo.jpeg # choose from all possible applications for opening a file (without setting a default) $ whippet -m photo.jpeg
In addition to implementing XDG MIME Applications, whippet can also use a SQlite database of weighted application/MIME type/regex associations to determine which app to use.
Minimalist replacements[编辑 | 编辑源代码]
The following packages conflict with and provide xdg-utils包 because they provide their own
If you want to use one of these resource openers while still being able to use xdg-utils包, install them manually in a PATH directory before
- linopenAUR - 170-line Bash script, supports regex rules
- mimi-gitAUR - 130-line Bash script, can change command arguments for each MIME type
- busking-gitAUR - 80-line Perl script similar to mimi but also supports regex rules
- sx-openAUR[损坏的链接：package not found] - 60-line Bash script, uses a simple shell-based config file
run-mailcap[编辑 | 编辑源代码]
xdg-opento delegate to it. This will cause an infinite loop if you are using the
/etc/mailcapfrom mailcap包, because it also delegates to