Unified kernel image

来自 Arch Linux 中文维基

一个 unified kernel image (UKI) 是 一个单独的,可被UEFI固件直接启动,或被你的 bootloader 在极少或没有配置文件的情况下自动加载的,可执行的文件.

Although Arch supported kernels themselves can be loaded by UEFI firmware, a unified image allows to incorporate all or a subset of the following:

The resulting executable, and therefore all these elements can then be easily signed for use with Secure Boot.

注意: In the entire article esp denotes the mountpoint of the EFI system partition.

Preparing a unified kernel image[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

mkinitcpio[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Kernel command line[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

mkinitcpio supports reading kernel parameters from command line files in the /etc/cmdline.d directory. Mkinitcpio will concatenate the contents of all files with a .conf extension in this directory and use them to generate the kernel command line. Any lines in the command line file that start with a # character are treated as comments and ignored by mkinitcpio. Take care to remove entries pointing to microcode and initramfs.

For example:

root=UUID=0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3 rw
# enable apparmor
lsm=landlock,lockdown,yama,integrity,apparmor,bpf audit=1 audit_backlog_limit=256

Alternatively, /etc/kernel/cmdline can be used to configure the kernel command line.

For example:

root=UUID=0a3407de-014b-458b-b5c1-848e92a327a3 rw quiet bgrt_disable
  • The root= parameter may be omitted if the root partition is automounted by systemd.
  • The bgrt_disable parameter tells Linux to not display the OEM logo after loading the ACPI tables.

.preset file[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Next, modify /etc/mkinitcpio.d/linux.preset, or the preset that you are using, as follows, with the appropriate mount point of the EFI system partition :

  • Un-comment (i.e. remove #) the PRESET_uki= parameter for each item in PRESETS=,
  • Optionally, comment out PRESET_image= to avoid storing a redundant initramfs-*.img file,
  • Optionally, add or un-comment the --splash parameter to each PRESET_options= line for which you want to add a splash image.

Here is a working example linux.preset for the linux kernel and the Arch splash screen.

# mkinitcpio preset file for the 'linux' package


PRESETS=('default' 'fallback')


fallback_options="-S autodetect"
  • If all you want to do is boot from the unified kernel images, you can mount the ESP to /efi and only those need to reside on the ESP partition.
  • You can append --cmdline /etc/kernel/fallback_cmdline to fallback_options to use different a different cmdline than above for the fallback image (e.g. without quiet).
  • To omit embedding the kernel command line, add --no-cmdline to PRESET_options=. Kernel parameters will need to be passed via the boot loader.
注意: PRESET_uki options were previously known as PRESET_efi_image, changed November 2022, with older option deprecated but working for now
pacman hook[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

A pacman hook is needed to trigger a rebuild after a microcode upgrade.

# Change to appropriate microcode package
# Change the linux part above and in the Exec line if a different kernel is used

Description=Update Microcode module in initcpio
Exec=/bin/sh -c 'while read -r trg; do case $trg in linux) exit 0; esac; done; /usr/bin/mkinitcpio -P'

Signing the UKIs for Secure Boot[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

By using a mkinitcpio post hook, the generated unified kernel images can be signed for Secure Boot. Create the following file and make it executable:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

[[ -n "$uki" ]] || exit 0

keypairs=(/path/to/db.key /path/to/db.crt)

for (( i=0; i<${#keypairs[@]}; i+=2 )); do
    key="${keypairs[$i]}" cert="${keypairs[(( i + 1 ))]}"
    if ! sbverify --cert "$cert" "$uki" &>/dev/null; then
        sbsign --key "$key" --cert "$cert" --output "$uki" "$uki"

Replace /path/to/db.key and /path/to/db.crt with the paths to the key pair you want to use for signing the image.

Building the UKIs[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Finally, make sure that the directory for the UKIs exists and regenerate the initramfs. For example, for the linux preset:

# mkdir -p esp/EFI/Linux
# mkinitcpio -p linux

Optionally, remove any leftover initramfs-*.img from /boot or /efi.

kernel-install[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

You can use systemd's kernel-install(8) script to automatically install kernels in the UKI format to the esp both for custom kernels and for kernel packages (installed using Pacman) by switching Pacman hooks from mkinitcpio to kernel-install.

kernel-install is not an initramfs generator, but it is a framework where packages can hook into the installation/generation of kernels of the system, through its "plugin" system. During its execution it will call the proper initramfs generator of the system (i.e.: mkinitcpio). The plugins are involved in kernel image/initramfs generation, signing, installation, etc. Packages that care about doing something during kernel installation can be notified by installing their own "plugin" for kernel-install. (The "plugins" are located in /usr/lib/kernel/install.d/.)

There are configuration options like "layout" available that affect where and how the kernel is installed when kernel-install is getting called.

mkinitcpio ships with a kernel-install plugin that generates the appropriate image (a UKI image for layout=uki). Other programs, such as sbctl, also ship with a kernel-install plugin.

To setup kernel-install to produce UKIs:

  • Set the kernel-install layout to 'uki'. e.g.:
    # echo "layout=uki" >> /etc/kernel/install.conf
  • Mask the direct kernel installation Pacman hooks:
    # ln -s /dev/null /etc/pacman.d/hooks/60-mkinitcpio-remove.hook
    # ln -s /dev/null /etc/pacman.d/hooks/90-mkinitcpio-install.hook
  • Create a Pacman hook for kernel-install. You can use pacman-hook-kernel-installAUR.
  • Remove and reinstall the kernel packages that you use.

dracut[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

See dracut#Unified kernel image and dracut#Generate a new initramfs on kernel upgrade.

sbctl[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Install the sbctl package. Store the kernel command line in /etc/kernel/cmdline. Use the sbctl bundle command with the --save parameter to create a bundle and have it be regenerated by a Pacman hook at appropriate times:

# sbctl bundle --save esp/EFI/Linux/arch-linux.efi

To create more EFI binaries for other kernels and initramfs images, repeat the above command with parameters --kernel-img and --initramfs, see sbctl(8) § EFI BINARY COMMANDS. The EFI binaries can be regenerated at any time with sbctl generate-bundles.

ukify[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Install the systemd-ukify package. Since ukify cannot generate an initramfs on its own, if required, it must be generated using dracut, mkinitcpio or booster.

A minimal working example can look something like this:

# /usr/lib/systemd/ukify --cmdline"kernel commandline options" /usr/lib/modules/A.B.C-name/vmlinuz /path/to/initramfs

Then, copy the resulting file to the EFI System Partition:

# cp filename.efi esp/EFI/Linux/
  • To skip having copy over the resulting EFI executable to the EFI System Partition, use the --output=esp/EFI/Linux/filename.efi command line option to ukify.
  • When specifying the --cmdline option, one can specify a file name to read the kernel parameters from (e.g. /etc/kernel/cmdline by adding the @ symbol before the file name, like --cmdline=@/path/to/cmdline.

An example for automatic UKI building with a systemd service for normal kernel image with intel ucode and /efi mounted ESP:

/usr/lib/systemd/ukify ${KERNEL} ${UCODE} ${INITRD} --cmdline @${CMDLINE} \
    --splash ${SPLASH} --output ${EFI}
Description=Run systemd ukify
ExecStart=/usr/bin/bash -c "source /etc/ukify.conf"
Description=Run systemd ukify

Then enable run_ukify.path.

Manually[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Put the kernel command line you want to use in a file, and create the bundle file using objcopy(1).

For microcode, first concatenate the microcode file and your initrd, as follows:

$ cat esp/cpu_manufacturer-ucode.img esp/initramfs-linux.img > /tmp/combined_initrd.img

When building the unified kernel image, pass in /tmp/combined_initrd.img as the initrd. This file can be removed afterwards.

$ osrel_offs=$(objdump -h "/usr/lib/systemd/boot/efi/linuxx64.efi.stub" | awk 'NF==7 {size=strtonum("0x"$3); offset=strtonum("0x"$4)} END {print size + offset}')
$ cmdline_offs=$((osrel_offs + $(stat -Lc%s "/usr/lib/os-release")))
$ splash_offs=$((cmdline_offs + $(stat -Lc%s "/etc/kernel/cmdline")))
$ linux_offs=$((splash_offs + $(stat -Lc%s "/usr/share/systemd/bootctl/splash-arch.bmp")))
$ initrd_offs=$((linux_offs + $(stat -Lc%s "vmlinuz-file")))
$ objcopy \
    --add-section .osrel="/usr/lib/os-release" --change-section-vma .osrel=$(printf 0x%x $osrel_offs) \
    --add-section .cmdline="/etc/kernel/cmdline" \
    --change-section-vma .cmdline=$(printf 0x%x $cmdline_offs) \
    --add-section .splash="/usr/share/systemd/bootctl/splash-arch.bmp" \
    --change-section-vma .splash=$(printf 0x%x $splash_offs) \
    --add-section .linux="vmlinuz-file" \
    --change-section-vma .linux=$(printf 0x%x $linux_offs) \
    --add-section .initrd="initrd-file" \
    --change-section-vma .initrd=$(printf 0x%x $initrd_offs) \
    "/usr/lib/systemd/boot/efi/linuxx64.efi.stub" "linux.efi"

The offsets are simply calculated so no sections overlap, as recommended in [1].

After creating the image, copy it to the EFI system partition:

# cp linux.efi esp/EFI/Linux/

Booting[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

systemd-boot[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

systemd-boot searches in esp/EFI/Linux/ for unified kernel images, and there is no further configuration needed. See sd-boot(7) § FILES

rEFInd[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

rEFInd will autodetect unified kernel images on your EFI system partition, and is capable of loading them. They can also be manually specified in refind.conf, by default located at:

menuentry "Arch Linux" {
    icon \EFI\refind\icons\os_arch.png
    ostype Linux
    loader \EFI\Linux\arch-linux.efi

Recall that no kernel parameters from esp/EFI/refind_linux.conf will be passed when booting this way. If the UKI was generated without a .cmdline section, specify the kernel parameters in the menu entry with an options line.

Directly from UEFI[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

efibootmgr can be used to create a UEFI boot entry for the .efi file:

# efibootmgr --create --disk /dev/sdX --part partition_number --label "Arch Linux" --loader 'EFI\Linux\arch-linux.efi' --unicode

See efibootmgr(8) for an explanation of the options.

注意: If options is present in a boot entry and Secure Boot is disabled, the value of options will override any .cmdline string embedded in a UKI that is specified by efi or linux (see #Preparing a unified kernel image). With Secure Boot, however, options (and any edits made to the kernel command line in the bootloader UI) will be ignored, and only the embedded .cmdline will be used.

See also[编辑 | 编辑源代码]