来自 Arch Linux 中文维基

这个页面用表格展示一些流行的 Linux 发行版包管理器命令的对应关系。这是受到 openSUSE's Software Management Command Line Comparison 的启发而成的。

提示:Arch 用户在临时处理其他发行版时可以用 pacapt,它是对其它包管理器的简单包装。

基本操作[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

行为 Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
搜索软件包(们)。 What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper searchzypper se [-s] emerge --search (-s)

emerge --searchdesc (-S)

按照包名安装软件包(们) pacman -S dnf install apt install zypper installzypper in emerge
获取源码包(们)并构建依赖 makepkg -s PKGBUILD dnf builddep apt build-dep zypper source-install (zypper si) 或 zypper install -d emerge, or explicitly emerge --with-bdeps
不进行实际操作,只输出操作目标 pacman --print (或 -p) dnf --setopt=tsflags=test apt --simulate (or -s, --dry-run, --just-print) zypper --dry-run emerge --pretend (-p)
切换是否手动确认 pacman --confirmpacman --noconfirm dnf --assumeyes (-y) 或 dnf --assumeno apt --yes (-y) zypper --non-interactive (-n) 或 zypper --no-confirm (-y) emerge --ask (-a)
刷新本地软件包数据库 pacman -Sy (见 the warnings about partial updates) dnf check-update or dnf makecache apt update zypper refreshzypper ref emerge --sync
升级软件包 - Install packages which have an older version already installed pacman -Syu dnf upgrade apt upgrade zypper updatezypper up emerge -[a]uDN @world
升级软件包 -另一种的升级命令, 可以完成更复杂的升级 -- 比如发行版升级. When the usual update command will omit package updates, which include changes in dependencies, this command can perform those updates. pacman -Syu dnf distro-sync apt dist-upgrade zypper dup emerge -[a]uDN @world
按照包名移除软件包(们)及其所有依赖 pacman -Rs dnf remove apt autoremove zypper removezypper rm emerge --depclean (-c)
按照包名移除软件包(们)及其配置文件 pacman -Rn ? apt purge ? n/a
按照包名移除软件包(们)及其所有依赖和配置文件 pacman -Rns ? apt autoremove --purge ? n/a
移除不再被需要的依赖(orphans), 例如 需要某个依赖的软件包已被移除 pacman -Qdtq | pacman -Rs - (-Qdttq to also remove optional deps) dnf autoremove apt autoremove zypper rm -u (just for removing a package) 或 zypper packages --unneeded (listing only and without recursion) emerge --depclean (-c)
移除所有不再处于任何仓库的软件包 pacman -Qmq | pacman -Rs - dnf repoquery --extras aptitude purge '~o' ?
将先前作为依赖被安装的软件包标记为明确的安装 pacman -D --asexplicit dnf mark install apt-mark manual zypper install --force (workaround which needs to reinstall the package) emerge --select (-w)
将软件包作为依赖被安装 / 并不明确的标记为required pacman -S --asdeps dnf install and then dnf mark remove apt-mark auto n/a (feature request) emerge --oneshot (-1)
仅下载指定的软件包而不解包或安装 pacman -Sw dnf download apt install --download-only (into the package cache) 或 apt download (bypass the package cache) zypper --download-only emerge --fetchonly (-f)
清理本地所有缓存。Options might limit what is actually cleaned. pacman -Sc or pacman -Scc dnf clean all apt autoclean removes only unneeded, obsolete information or apt clean zypper clean eclean distfiles
打开一个Shell来在一个会话里输入多个命令 dnf shell zypper shell
Show a log of actions taken by the software management. read /var/log/pacman.log dnf history read /var/log/dpkg.log read /var/log/zypp/history read /var/log/portage
Get a dump of the whole system information - Prints, Saves or similar the current state of the package management system. Preferred output is text or XML. (Note: Why either-or here? No tool offers the option to choose the output format.) /var/lib/pacman/local /var/lib/rpm/Packages apt-cache stats emerge --info
e-mail delivery of package changes apt install apt-listchanges eselect news read

查询特定的软件包[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
显示关于一个软件包的全部或者大多数信息。The tools' verbosity for the default command vary. But with options, the tools are on par with each other. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf listdnf info apt showapt-cache policy zypper info or zypper if emerge -S, emerge -pv or eix
显示本地软件包信息:名称、版本、描述等等 pacman -Qi rpm -qi / dnf info installed dpkg -saptitude show zypper info or rpm -qi emerge -pv or emerge -S
显示远端软件包信息:名称、版本、描述等等 pacman -Si dnf info apt-cache showaptitude show zypper info emerge -pv and emerge -S or equery meta
显示由本地软件包提供的文件 pacman -Ql rpm -ql dpkg -L rpm -ql equery files or qlist
显示由远端软件包提供的文件 pacman -Fl dnf repoquery -l or repoquery -l (from package yum-utils) apt-file list pfl
查询提供某个文件的软件包 pacman -Qo rpm -qf (installed only) or dnf provides (everything) or repoquery -f (from package yum-utils) dpkg -S or dlocate rpm -qf (installed only) or zypper search -f (everything) equery belongsqfile
List the files that the package holds. Again, this functionality can be mimicked by other more complex commands. pacman -Ql or pacman -Fl dnf repoquery -l dpkg-query -L rpm -ql equery filesqlist
Displays packages which provide the given exp. aka reverse provides. Mainly a shortcut to search a specific field. Other tools might offer this functionality through the search command. pacman -F dnf provides apt-file search zypper what-provides or zypper wp equery belongs (only installed packages) or pfl
搜索所有软件包以找到持有某个特定文件的包 pacman -F dnf provides apt-file search or auto-apt is using this functionality. zypper search -f equery belongsqfile
显示软件包的变更日志 pacman -Qc dnf changelog apt-get changelog rpm -q --changelog equery changes -f

Querying package lists[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Search for package(s) by searching the expression in name, description, short description. What exact fields are being searched by default varies in each tool. Mostly options bring tools on par. pacman -Ss dnf search apt search zypper searchzypper se -s emerge -Seix
列出有可用更新的软件包。Note: Some provide special commands to limit the output to certain installation sources, others use options. pacman -Qu dnf list updatesdnf check-update apt list --upgradable zypper list-updates or zypper patch-check (just for patches) emerge -uDNp @world
Display a list of all packages in all installation sources that are handled by the packages management. Some tools provide options or additional commands to limit the output to a specific installation source. pacman -Sl dnf list available apt-cache dumpavail or apt-cache dump (Cache only) or apt-cache pkgnames zypper packages portageq all_best_visible /
生成一个已安装软件包的列表 pacman -Q dnf list installed dpkg --list | grep ^i zypper search --installed-only qlist -IC
List packages that are installed but are not available in any installation source (anymore). pacman -Qm dnf list extras apt --installed list | grep ,local zypper se -si | grep 'System Packages' eix-test-obsolete
List packages that were recently added to one of the installation sources, i.e. which are new to it. dnf list recent aptitude search '~N' or aptitude forget-new eix-diff
List installed local packages along with version pacman -Q rpm -qa dpkg -l or apt list --installed zypper search -s or rpm -qa qlist -ICv
Search locally installed package for names or descriptions pacman -Qs rpm -qa '*<str>*' aptitude search '~i(~n $name|~d $description)' eix -S -I
List packages not required by any other package pacman -Qtt dnf leaves or package-cleanup --leaves --all deborphan -anp1 emerge -pc
List packages installed explicitly (not as dependencies) pacman -Qe dnf history userinstalled apt-mark showmanual zypper search | grep -E '^i\+' (workaround) emerge -pvO @selected or eix --selected
List packages installed automatically (as dependencies) pacman -Qd zypper search | grep -E '^i[^+]' (workaround) apt-mark showauto

Querying package dependencies[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Display packages which require X to be installed, aka show reverse dependencies. pacman -Sii or pacman -Qii dnf repoquery --alldeps --whatrequires or repoquery --whatrequires apt-cache rdepends or aptitude search ~D$pattern zypper search --requires equery depends
Display packages which conflict with given expression (often package). Search can be used as well to mimic this function. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf repoquery --conflicts aptitude search '~C$pattern'
List all packages which are required for the given package, aka show dependencies. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf repoquery --requires or repoquery -R apt-cache depends or apt-cache show zypper info --requires emerge -ep
List what the current package provides pacman -Sii or pacman -Qii dnf repoquery --provides dpkg -s or aptitude show zypper info --provides equery files or qlist
List all packages that require a particular package pacman -Sii dnf repoquery --installed --alldeps --whatrequires aptitude search ~D{depends,recommends,suggests}:$pattern or aptitude why zypper search --requires equery depends -a
Display all packages that the specified packages obsoletes. pacman -Si or pacman -Qi dnf list obsoletes apt-cache show
Generates an output suitable for processing with dotty for the given package(s). apt-cache dotty

Installation sources management[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Installation sources management edit /etc/pacman.conf edit /etc/yum.repos.d/${REPO}.repo edit /etc/apt/sources.list edit /etc/zypp/repos.d/${REPO}.repo layman or eselect repository
Add an installation source to the system. Some tools provide additional commands for certain sources, others allow all types of source URI for the add command. Again others, like apt force editing a sources list. apt-cdrom is a special command, which offers special options design for CDs/DVDs as source. edit /etc/pacman.conf dnf config-manager apt-cdrom add zypper ar <URL or .repo file> layman or overlays
Refresh the information about the specified installation source(s) or all installation sources. pacman -Sy (always upgrade the whole system afterwards) dnf clean expire-cache and then dnf check-update apt-get update zypper refresh or zypper ref emerge --sync or layman -S
Prints a list of all installation sources including important information like URI, alias etc. cat /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist cat /etc/yum.repos.d/* apt-cache policy zypper repos or zypper lr layman -l or eselect repository list
List all packages from a certain repo paclist <repo> zypper search -r <repo> or zypper se -r <repo> eix --in-overlay
Disable an installation source for an operation dnf --disablerepo= emerge package::repo-to-use
Download packages from a different version of the distribution than the one installed. pacman -S repo_name/package dnf --releasever= apt-get install -t release package or apt-get install package/release (dependencies not covered) zypper install -r <repo> package echo "category/package ~amd64" >> /etc/portage/package.keywords and then emerge package

Overrides[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Add a package lock rule to keep its current state from being changed edit /etc/pacman.conf modifying IgnorePkg array edit dnf.conf adding/amending the exclude option apt-mark hold pkg zypper al or put package name in /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask
Delete a package lock rule edit /etc/pacman.conf removing package from IgnorePkg line apt-mark unhold pkg zypper rl or remove package name from /etc/zypp/locks /etc/portage/package.mask (or package.unmask)
Show a listing of all lock rules cat /etc/pacman.conf /etc/apt/preferences zypper ll or view /etc/zypp/locks cat /etc/portage/package.mask
Set the priority of the given package to avoid upgrade, force downgrade or to overwrite any default behavior. Can also be used to prefer a package version from a certain installation source. edit /etc/pacman.conf modifying HoldPkg and/or IgnorePkg arrays /etc/apt/preferences, apt-cache policy zypper mr -p edit /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords adding a line with =category/package-version
Remove a previously set priority /etc/apt/preferences zypper mr -p edit /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords removing offending line
Show a list of set priorities apt-cache policy or /etc/apt/preferences zypper lr -p grep -r . /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords
Ignore problems that priorities may trigger. n/a

Verification and repair[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
验证单个软件包 pacman -Qk (can add another k) rpm -V debsums rpm -V equery check
验证所有软件包 pacman -Qk (can add another k) rpm -Va debsums rpm -Va equery check
重新安装给定的软件包。 this will reinstall the given package without dependency hassle pacman -S dnf reinstall apt install --reinstall zypper install --force emerge -1O
验证整个系统的依赖关系; used if installation process was forcefully killed pacman -Dk dnf repoquery --requires apt-get check zypper verify emerge -uDN @world
使用一些魔法来修理损坏的依赖关系 for pacman dependency level, use pacman -Dk; for shared library level, use findbrokenpkgsAUR or lddd (from devtools) dnf repoquery --unsatisfied apt-get --fix-broken and then aptitude install zypper verify revdep-rebuild
Add a checkpoint to the package system for later rollback (unnecessary, it is done on every transaction) n/a
Remove a checkpoint from the system n/a n/a n/a
Provide a list of all system checkpoints n/a dnf history list n/a
Rolls entire packages back to a certain date or checkpoint n/a dnf history rollback n/a
Undo a single specified transaction n/a dnf history undo n/a

Using package files and building packages[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

Action Arch Red Hat/Fedora Debian/Ubuntu SLES/openSUSE Gentoo
Query a package supplied on the command line rather than an entry in the package management database pacman -Qp rpm -qp dpkg -I
List the contents of a package file pacman -Qpl rpmls rpm -qpl dpkg -c rpm -qpl
Install local package file, e.g. app.rpm and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf install apt install zypper in emerge
Updates package(s) with local packages and uses the installation sources to resolve dependencies pacman -U dnf upgrade debi emerge
Add a local package to the local package cache mostly for debugging purposes. cp package-filename /var/cache/pacman/pkg/ apt-cache add package-filename n/a cp package-filename /usr/portage/distfiles
解包一个软件包 tar -xvf rpm2cpio | cpio -vid dpkg-deb -x rpm2cpio | cpio -vid tar -jxvf
Install/Remove packages to satisfy build-dependencies. Uses information in the source package Use ABS and makepkg -seoc dnf builddep apt-get build-dep zypper si -d emerge -o
Display the source package to the given package name(s) dnf repoquery -s apt-cache showsrc n/a
Download the corresponding source package(s) to the given package name(s) Use ABS and makepkg -o dnf download --source apt-get source or debcheckout zypper source-install emerge --fetchonly
构建一个软件包 makepkg -s rpmbuild -ba (normal) or mock (in chroot) debuild rpmbuild -ba, then build, and then osc build ebuild or quickpkg
检查可能的打包问题 namcap
(requires namcap)
rpmlint lintian rpmlint repoman

Log file rotation[编辑 | 编辑源代码]

By default, Arch Linux does not rotate pacman.log. See, for example, FS#11272 and FS#20428#comment66480. This is in contrast to the default policy of most other Linux distributions. Some distributions, notably Gentoo, hardly write log files by default.

See also[编辑 | 编辑源代码]